Published on in Vol 6, No 1 (2019): January

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
Recommendations for Methodology of Virtual Reality Clinical Trials in Health Care by an International Working Group: Iterative Study

Recommendations for Methodology of Virtual Reality Clinical Trials in Health Care by an International Working Group: Iterative Study

Recommendations for Methodology of Virtual Reality Clinical Trials in Health Care by an International Working Group: Iterative Study


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  115. Garcia L, Birckhead B, Krishnamurthy P, Mackey I, Sackman J, Salmasi V, Louis R, Castro C, Maddox R, Maddox T, Darnall B. Durability of the Treatment Effects of an 8-Week Self-administered Home-Based Virtual Reality Program for Chronic Low Back Pain: 6-Month Follow-up Study of a Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(5):e37480 View
  116. Brady N, Dejaco B, Lewis J, McCreesh K, McVeigh J, Zadro J. Physiotherapist beliefs and perspectives on virtual reality supported rehabilitation for the management of musculoskeletal shoulder pain: A focus group study. PLOS ONE 2023;18(4):e0284445 View
  117. Sarker B, Bin Sharif N, Atikur Rahman M, Shahariar Parvez A. AI, IoMT and Blockchain in Healthcare. Journal of Trends in Computer Science and Smart Technology 2023;5(1):30 View
  118. Hernandez R, Wilund K, Solai K, Tamayo D, Fast D, Venkatesan P, Lash J, Lora C, Martinez L, Martin Alemañy G, Martinez A, Kwon S, Romero D, Browning M, Moskowitz J. Positive Psychological Intervention Delivered Using Virtual Reality in Patients on Hemodialysis With Comorbid Depression: Protocol and Design for the Joviality Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Research Protocols 2023;12:e45100 View
  119. Cieślik B, Juszko K, Kiper P, Szczepańska-Gieracha J. Immersive virtual reality as support for the mental health of elderly women: a randomized controlled trial. Virtual Reality 2023;27(3):2227 View
  120. Lundin R, Yeap Y, Menkes D. Adverse Effects of Virtual and Augmented Reality Interventions in Psychiatry: Systematic Review. JMIR Mental Health 2023;10:e43240 View
  121. Longo U, Carnevale A, Andreoli F, Mannocchi I, Bravi M, Sassi M, Santacaterina F, Carli M, Schena E, Papalia R. Immersive virtual reality for shoulder rehabilitation: evaluation of a physical therapy program executed with oculus quest 2. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2023;24(1) View
  122. Doğan E, Şahin Y. Virtual reality environment in pharmacy education: A cyclical study on instructional design principles. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 2024;40(1):269 View
  123. Kouijzer M, Kip H, Bouman Y, Kelders S. Implementation of virtual reality in healthcare: a scoping review on the implementation process of virtual reality in various healthcare settings. Implementation Science Communications 2023;4(1) View
  124. Naef A, Jeitziner M, Jakob S, Müri R, Nef T. Creating Custom Immersive 360-Degree Videos for Use in Clinical and Nonclinical Settings: Tutorial. JMIR Medical Education 2023;9:e42154 View
  125. Moloney M, Doody O, O’Reilly M, Lucey M, Callinan J, Exton C, Colreavy S, O’Mahony F, Meskell P, Coffey A. Virtual reality use and patient outcomes in palliative care: A scoping review. DIGITAL HEALTH 2023;9 View
  126. Lier E, Smits M, de Vries M, van Goor H. Self-Administered Virtual Reality for Postsurgical Pain Management: A Qualitative Study of Hospital Patients’ Reported Experiences. Journal of Clinical Medicine 2023;12(21):6805 View
  127. Lo S, Rose A, Fowers S, Darko K, Britto A, Spina T, Ankrah L, Godonu A, Ntreh D, Lalwani R, Graham C, Tittsworth D, McIntyre A, O’Dowd C, Watson S, Maguire R, Hoak A, Ampomah O, Cutler B. Ghana 3D Telemedicine International MDT: A proof-of-concept study. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 2024;88:425 View
  128. Raila H, Avanesyan T, Valentine K, Koo B, Huang C, Tsutsumi Y, Andreeff E, Qiu T, Muñoz Rodríguez P, Varias A, Filippou-Frye M, van Roessel P, Bullock K, Periyakoil V, Rodríguez C. Augmenting group hoarding disorder treatment with virtual reality discarding: A pilot study in older adults. Journal of Psychiatric Research 2023;166:25 View
  129. Bilika P, Karampatsou N, Stavrakakis G, Paliouras A, Theodorakis Y, Strimpakos N, Kapreli E. Virtual Reality-Based Exercise Therapy for Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Scoping Review. Healthcare 2023;11(17):2412 View
  130. Tokgöz P, Wähnert D, Elsner A, Schack T, Cienfuegos Tellez M, Conrad J, Vordemvenne T, Dockweiler C. Virtual Reality for Upper Extremity Rehabilitation—A Prospective Pilot Study. Healthcare 2023;11(10):1498 View
  131. Maddox T, Oldstone L, Sparks C, Sackman J, Oyao A, Garcia L, Maddox R, Ffrench K, Garcia H, Adair T, Irvin A, Maislin D, Keenan B, Bonakdar R, Darnall B. In-Home Virtual Reality Program for Chronic Lower Back Pain: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Effectiveness Trial in a Clinically Severe and Diverse Sample. Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Digital Health 2023;1(4):563 View
  132. Groenveld T, Smits M, Knoop J, Kallewaard J, Staal J, de Vries M, van Goor H. Effect of a Behavioral Therapy-Based Virtual Reality Application on Quality of Life in Chronic Low Back Pain. The Clinical Journal of Pain 2023;39(6):278 View
  133. Logan D, Khanna K, Randall E, O’Donnell S, Reks T, McLennan L. Centering Patient and Clinician Voices in Developing Tools to Address Pain Related School Impairment: A Phase I Study of a Virtual Reality School Simulation for Children and Adolescents with Chronic Pain. Children 2023;10(10):1644 View
  134. Smith C, Gregory C, Bryant L. Utilizing Virtual Reality for Gender‐Affirming Voice Training: Surveying the Attitudes and Perspectives of Potential Consumers. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders 2024;59(3):976 View
  135. Napetschnig A, Brixius K, Deiters W. Development of a Core Set of Quality Criteria for Virtual Reality Applications Designed for Older Adults: Multistep Qualitative Study. Interactive Journal of Medical Research 2023;12:e45433 View
  136. Combalia A, Sanchez-Vives M, Donegan T. Immersive virtual reality in orthopaedics—a narrative review. International Orthopaedics 2024;48(1):21 View
  137. Persky S, Colloca L. Medical Extended Reality Trials: Building Robust Comparators, Controls, and Sham. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e45821 View
  138. Levy A, Nittas V, Wray T. Patient Perceptions of In Vivo Versus Virtual Reality Exposures for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: Cross-Sectional Survey Study. JMIR Formative Research 2023;7:e47443 View
  139. Wray T, Kemp J, Larsen M. Virtual reality (VR) treatments for anxiety disorders are unambiguously successful, so why are so few therapists using it? Barriers to adoption and potential solutions. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 2023;52(6):603 View
  140. van der Kruk S, Gunn K, MacDougall H, Milne D, Smith K, Zielinski R. Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of virtual reality as a patient education tool for people with cancer undergoing immunotherapy: a protocol for a randomised controlled pilot study in a regional setting. BMJ Open 2023;13(6):e071080 View
  141. Tzekaki E, Katsipis G, Andreadou E, Mouzakidis C, Baldimtsi E, Karathanasi E, Hassandra M, Galanis E, Hatzigeorgiadis A, Goudas M, Zikas P, Evangelou G, Papagiannakis G, Bellis G, Kokkotis C, Tsatalas T, Giakas G, Theodorakis Y, Tsolaki M, Pantazaki A. VRADA training system as a non-pharmacological dual intervention to alleviate symptoms of the pathophysiology of Mild Cognitive Impairment. Brain Disorders 2023;11:100090 View
  142. Burin-Chu S, Baillet H, Leconte P, Lejeune L, Thouvarecq R, Benguigui N. Effectiveness of virtual reality interventions of the upper limb in children and young adults with cerebral palsy: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Clinical Rehabilitation 2024;38(1):15 View
  143. Betka S, Kannape O, Fasola J, Lance F, Cardin S, Schmit A, Similowski T, Soccal P, Herbelin B, Adler D, Blanke O. Virtual reality intervention alleviates dyspnoea in patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia. ERJ Open Research 2023;9(6):00570-2022 View
  144. Porter R, Beaglehole B, Baghaei N. Virtual reality technology in the treatment of anxiety – progress and future challenges. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 2023;23(12):1047 View
  145. Mazurek J, Cieślik B, Wrzeciono A, Gajda R, Szczepańska-Gieracha J. Immersive Virtual Reality Therapy Is Supportive for Orthopedic Rehabilitation among the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Medicine 2023;12(24):7681 View
  146. Qu Z, Nguyen Q, Lau C, Johnston A, Kennedy P, Simoff S, Catchpoole D. Understanding cancer patient cohorts in virtual reality environment for better clinical decisions: a usability study. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2023;23(1) View
  147. Wu S, Chuang C, Liao W, Li C, Shih H. Using Virtual Reality in a Rehabilitation Program for Patients With Breast Cancer: Phenomenological Study. JMIR Serious Games 2024;12:e44025 View
  148. Jia X, Xu J, Xu Y, Li H, Peng S, Zhao B. Complementarity with Real Forests: A Conceptual Framework and Narrative Review of Multidimensional Effects in Virtual Forests. Forests 2023;15(1):83 View
  149. Maria Pizzoli S, Vergani L, Monzani D, Scotto L, Cincidda C, Pravettoni G. The Sound of Grief: A Critical Discussion on the Experience of Creating and Listening to the Digitally Reproduced Voice of the Deceived. OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying 2024 View
  150. Francová A, Jablonská M, Fajnerová I. Design and Evaluation of Virtual Reality Environments for Claustrophobia. PRESENCE: Virtual and Augmented Reality 2023;32:23 View
  151. Woodall W, Chang E, Toy S, Lee D, Sherman J. Does Extended Reality Simulation Improve Surgical/Procedural Learning and Patient Outcomes When Compared With Standard Training Methods?. Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare 2024;19(1S):S98 View
  152. Brassel S, Brunner M, Campbell A, Power E, Togher L. Exploring Discussions About Virtual Reality on Twitter to Inform Brain Injury Rehabilitation: Content and Network Analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2024;26:e45168 View
  153. Spiegel B, Rizzo A, Persky S, Liran O, Wiederhold B, Woods S, Donovan K, Sarkar K, Xiang H, Joo S, Jotwani R, Lang M, Paul M, Senter-Zapata M, Widmeier K, Zhang H. What Is Medical Extended Reality? A Taxonomy Defining the Current Breadth and Depth of an Evolving Field. Journal of Medical Extended Reality 2024;1(1):4 View
  154. Slatman S, Groenveld T, Ostelo R, van Goor H, Staal J, Knoop J. Development of a Multimodal, Personalized Intervention of Virtual Reality Integrated Within Physiotherapy for Patients With Complex Chronic Low-Back Pain. Journal of Medical Extended Reality 2024;1(1):30 View
  155. Mulvaney P, Rooney B, Friehs M, Leader J. Social VR design features and experiential outcomes: narrative review and relationship map for dyadic agent conversations. Virtual Reality 2024;28(1) View
  156. Dejaco B, Brady N, Tankink A, Lewis J, van Goor H, Staal J, Stolwijk N. Experiences of physiotherapists considering virtual reality for shoulder rehabilitation: A focus group study. DIGITAL HEALTH 2024;10 View
  157. Albert L, Potheegadoo J, Herbelin B, Bernasconi F, Blanke O. Numerosity estimation of virtual humans as a digital-robotic marker for hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease. Nature Communications 2024;15(1) View
  158. El-Gabalawy R, Sommer J, Hebbard P, Reynolds K, Logan G, Smith M, Mutter T, Mutch W, Mota N, Proulx C, Gagnon Shaigetz V, Maples-Keller J, Arora R, Perrin D, Benedictson J, Jacobsohn E. An Immersive Virtual Reality Intervention for Preoperative Anxiety and Distress Among Adults Undergoing Oncological Surgery: Protocol for a 3-Phase Development and Feasibility Trial. JMIR Research Protocols 2024;13:e55692 View
  159. Reategui-Rivera C, Villarreal-Zegarra D, De La Cruz-Torralva K, Díaz-Sánchez P, Finkelstein J. Immersive Technologies for Depression Care: Scoping Review. JMIR Mental Health 2024;11:e56056 View
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  161. Goh C, Ma Y, Rizzo A. Normative performance data on visual attention in neurotypical children: virtual reality assessment of cognitive and psychomotor development. Frontiers in Virtual Reality 2024;5 View
  162. Dhunnoo P, Wetzlmair L, O’Carroll V. Extended Reality Therapies for Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review of Patients’ and Healthcare Professionals’ Perspectives. Sci 2024;6(2):19 View
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  164. Mangal s, Sharma R, Fatima A, Mangal D, Panvar V, Panvar R. Technology Empowerment of ASHA Workers Using E-Health Initiatives in Rural Rajasthan. Healthline 2023;14(4):276 View
  165. Lopes M, Falk T. Audio-visual-olfactory immersive digital nature exposure for stress and anxiety reduction: a systematic review on systems, outcomes, and challenges. Frontiers in Virtual Reality 2024;5 View
  166. Marques J, Figueiredo C, Scanavino M. A review of published studies on virtual reality in sexuality research. Sexual Medicine Reviews 2024 View
  167. Kouijzer M, Kip H, Kelders S, Bouman Y. The introduction of virtual reality in forensic mental healthcare – an interview study on the first impressions of patients and healthcare providers regarding VR in treatment. Frontiers in Psychology 2024;15 View
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Books/Policy Documents

  1. Fernández-Alvarez J, Colombo D, Botella C, García-Palacios A, Riva G. Pervasive Computing Paradigms for Mental Health. View
  2. . IDeaLs (Innovation and Design as Leadership). View
  3. Pandey R, Pandey A, Maurya P, Singh G. The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) and Telemedicine Frameworks and Applications. View
  4. Jifrina Premnath B, Nalini N. Machine Intelligence for Internet of Medical Things: Applications and Future Trends. View
  5. Demetriou D, Mathabe K, Lolas G, Dlamini Z. Society 5.0 and Next Generation Healthcare. View
  6. Rizzo A, Hartholt A, Mozgai S. Handbook of Media Psychology. View