Published on in Vol 8, No 9 (2021): September

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
Virtual Reality for Supporting the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety: Scoping Review

Virtual Reality for Supporting the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety: Scoping Review

Virtual Reality for Supporting the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety: Scoping Review


  1. Xu W, Wang Y, Huang W, Duan Y. An Efficient Nonlinear Mass-Spring Model for Anatomical Virtual Reality. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 2022;71:1 View
  2. Linares-Chamorro M, Domènech-Oller N, Jerez-Roig J, Piqué-Buisan J. Immersive Therapy for Improving Anxiety in Health Professionals of a Regional Hospital during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Quasi-Experimental Pilot Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2022;19(16):9793 View
  3. Steubl L, Baumeister H. Digitale Interventionen bei Angststörungen. PiD - Psychotherapie im Dialog 2022;23(03):75 View
  4. Xu W, Liang H, Baghaei N, Ma X, Yu K, Meng X, Wen S. Effects of an Immersive Virtual Reality Exergame on University Students’ Anxiety, Depression, and Perceived Stress: Pilot Feasibility and Usability Study. JMIR Serious Games 2021;9(4):e29330 View
  5. Krittanawong C, Isath A, Katz C, Kaplin S, Wang Z, Ma M, Storch E, Torous J, Ellis S, Lavie C. Public perception of metaverse and mental health on Twitter: A sentiment analysis. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 2023;76:99 View
  6. Chitale V, Baghaei N, Playne D, Liang H, Zhao Y, Erensoy A, Ahmad Y. The Use of Videogames and Virtual Reality for the Assessment of Anxiety and Depression: A Scoping Review. Games for Health Journal 2022;11(6):341 View
  7. Xu W, Liang H, Yu K, Wen S, Baghaei N, Tu H. Acceptance of Virtual Reality Exergames Among Chinese Older Adults. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction 2023;39(5):1134 View
  8. Cerasa A, Gaggioli A, Marino F, Riva G, Pioggia G. The promise of the metaverse in mental health: the new era of MEDverse. Heliyon 2022;8(11):e11762 View
  9. Kaup K, Vasser M, Tulver K, Munk M, Pikamäe J, Aru J. Psychedelic replications in virtual reality and their potential as a therapeutic instrument: an open-label feasibility study. Frontiers in Psychiatry 2023;14 View
  10. Baghaei N, Liang H, Billinghurst M, Naslund J, Oyekoya O. Editorial: Virtual Reality and Mental Health: Opportunities to Advance Research and Practice. Frontiers in Virtual Reality 2022;3 View
  11. Tan J, Kannis-Dymand L, Jones C. Examining the potential of VR program Tilt Brush in reducing anxiety. Virtual Reality 2023;27(4):3379 View
  12. Björling E, Sonney J, Rodriguez S, Carr N, Zade H, Moon S. Exploring the Effect of a Nature-based Virtual Reality Environment on Stress in Adolescents. Frontiers in Virtual Reality 2022;3 View
  13. Pandrangi V, Shah S, Bruening J, Wax M, Clayburgh D, Andersen P, Li R. Effect of Virtual Reality on Pain Management and Opioid Use Among Hospitalized Patients After Head and Neck Surgery. JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery 2022;148(8):724 View
  14. Guo L, Li J, White H, Xu Z, Ren J, Huang X, Chen Y, Yang K. PROTOCOL: Treatment for depressive disorder among adults: An evidence and gap map of systematic reviews. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2023;19(1) View
  15. Bashir Z, Misquith C, Shahab A, Has P, Bukhari S. The impact of Virtual Reality on Anxiety and Functional Capacity in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Current Problems in Cardiology 2023;48(5):101628 View
  16. Hao J, Li Y, Swanson R, Chen Z, Siu K. Effects of virtual reality on physical, cognitive, and psychological outcomes in cancer rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Supportive Care in Cancer 2023;31(2) View
  17. Benrimoh D, Chheda F, Margolese H. The Best Predictor of the Future—the Metaverse, Mental Health, and Lessons Learned From Current Technologies. JMIR Mental Health 2022;9(10):e40410 View
  18. Baghaei N, Liang H, Naslund J, Porter R. Games for Mental Health. Games for Health Journal 2022;11(6):337 View
  19. Zaharuddin F, Ibrahim N, Yusof A. A Conceptual Framework for Designing Virtual Environments for Stress Therapy. Applied Sciences 2022;12(19):9973 View
  20. Restout J, Bernache-Assollant I, Morizio C, Boujut A, Angelini L, Tchalla A, Perrochon A. Fully Immersive Virtual Reality Using 360° Videos to Manage Well-Being in Older Adults: A Scoping Review. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2023;24(4):564 View
  21. Thomas L. The future potential of virtual reality countermeasures for maintaining behavioural health during long duration space exploration. Frontiers in Virtual Reality 2023;4 View
  22. Cieślik B, Juszko K, Kiper P, Szczepańska-Gieracha J. Immersive virtual reality as support for the mental health of elderly women: a randomized controlled trial. Virtual Reality 2023;27(3):2227 View
  23. McIntyre R, Greenleaf W, Bulaj G, Taylor S, Mitsi G, Saliu D, Czysz A, Silvesti G, Garcia M, Jain R. Digital health technologies and major depressive disorder. CNS Spectrums 2023;28(6):662 View
  24. Rohaj A, Bulaj G. Digital Therapeutics (DTx) Expand Multimodal Treatment Options for Chronic Low Back Pain: The Nexus of Precision Medicine, Patient Education, and Public Health. Healthcare 2023;11(10):1469 View
  25. Forbes A, Keleher M, Venditto M, DiBiasi F. Assessing Patient Adherence to and Engagement With Digital Interventions for Depression in Clinical Trials: Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e43727 View
  26. Helou S, Khalil N, Daou M, El Helou E. Virtual reality for healthcare: A scoping review of commercially available applications for head-mounted displays. DIGITAL HEALTH 2023;9:205520762311786 View
  27. Vaezipour A, Aldridge D, Koenig S, Burns C, Baghaei N, Theodoros D, Russell T. Rehabilitation Supported by Immersive Virtual Reality for Adults With Communication Disorders: Semistructured Interviews and Usability Survey Study. JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies 2023;10:e46959 View
  28. Szekely R, Mason O, Frohlich D, Barley E. The use of virtual reality to reduce mental health stigma among healthcare and non-healthcare students: a systematic review. Behaviour & Information Technology 2023:1 View
  29. Halim I, Stemmet L, Hach S, Porter R, Liang H, Vaezipour A, Henry J, Baghaei N. Individualized Virtual Reality for Increasing Self-Compassion: Evaluation Study. JMIR Mental Health 2023;10:e47617 View
  30. Herrera V, Vallejo D, Castro-Schez J, Monekosso D, de los Reyes A, Glez-Morcillo C, Albusac J. Rehab-Immersive: A framework to support the development of virtual reality applications in upper limb rehabilitation. SoftwareX 2023;23:101412 View
  31. Jones D, Galvez R, Evans D, Hazelton M, Rossiter R, Irwin P, Micalos P, Logan P, Rose L, Fealy S. The Integration and Application of Extended Reality (XR) Technologies within the General Practice Primary Medical Care Setting: A Systematic Review. Virtual Worlds 2023;2(4):359 View
  32. Zhang H, Wang R, Kong Z, Yu J, Hou X, Zhang S. Effect of web-implemented exercise interventions on depression and anxiety in patients with neurological disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Neurology 2023;14 View
  33. Weisz J, Fitzpatrick O, Venturo‐Conerly K, Sternberg A, Steinberg J, Ng M. Research Review: The internalizing paradox – youth anxiety and depression symptoms, psychotherapy outcomes, and implications for research and practice. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2023;64(12):1720 View
  34. Buryak Z, Moskvitina U. The use of geo-information technology analysis the impact of open spaces on the individual’s mental state. InterCarto. InterGIS 2023;29(2):59 View
  35. Porter R, Beaglehole B, Baghaei N. Virtual reality technology in the treatment of anxiety – progress and future challenges. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 2023;23(12):1047 View
  36. Yu K, Wang L, Lv S, Ye X, Liu L, Zheng X, Jin R, Zhou D, Zhang Y, Min G, Wu S. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy to study effects of virtual reality intervention for adolescents with depression in a clinical setting in China: study protocol for a prospective, randomised, controlled trial. BMJ Open 2023;13(12):e074129 View
  37. Chitlange N, Yadav V. Impact of Controlled Breathing Techniques in Virtual Reality Environments on the Psychological Status of Oral Cancer Patients: A Case Report. Cureus 2023 View
  38. Sokołowska B. Being in Virtual Reality and Its Influence on Brain Health—An Overview of Benefits, Limitations and Prospects. Brain Sciences 2024;14(1):72 View
  39. Biskupiak Z, Ha V, Rohaj A, Bulaj G. Digital Therapeutics for Improving Effectiveness of Pharmaceutical Drugs and Biological Products: Preclinical and Clinical Studies Supporting Development of Drug + Digital Combination Therapies for Chronic Diseases. Journal of Clinical Medicine 2024;13(2):403 View
  40. Spiegel B, Liran O, Clark A, Samaan J, Khalil C, Chernoff R, Reddy K, Mehra M. Feasibility of combining spatial computing and AI for mental health support in anxiety and depression. npj Digital Medicine 2024;7(1) View

Books/Policy Documents

  1. Keller O, Budney A, Struble C, Teepe G. Digital Therapeutics for Mental Health and Addiction. View
  2. Morales J, Cornide-Reyes H, Rossel P, Sáez P, Silva-Aravena F. Social Computing and Social Media. View
  3. Sun X, Liu X. Proceedings of the 2023 2nd International Conference on Educational Innovation and Multimedia Technology (EIMT 2023). View
  4. Mbatha S, Mulaudzi T, Mbita Z, Adeola H, Batra J, Blenman K, Dlamini Z. Society 5.0 and Next Generation Healthcare. View
  5. De Clara L. AI and Emotions in Digital Society. View