Published on in Vol 6, No 2 (2019): February

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
Believing Is Seeing: A Proof-of-Concept Semiexperimental Study on Using Mobile Virtual Reality to Boost the Effects of Interpretation Bias Modification for Anxiety

Believing Is Seeing: A Proof-of-Concept Semiexperimental Study on Using Mobile Virtual Reality to Boost the Effects of Interpretation Bias Modification for Anxiety

Believing Is Seeing: A Proof-of-Concept Semiexperimental Study on Using Mobile Virtual Reality to Boost the Effects of Interpretation Bias Modification for Anxiety


  1. Jenny C, Reuter C. Usability of Individualized Head-Related Transfer Functions in Virtual Reality: Empirical Study With Perceptual Attributes in Sagittal Plane Sound Localization. JMIR Serious Games 2020;8(3):e17576 View
  2. Zhang M, Ying J, Song G, Fung D, Smith H. Web-Based Cognitive Bias Modification Interventions for Psychiatric Disorders: Scoping Review. JMIR Mental Health 2019;6(10):e11841 View
  3. Schleider J, Mullarkey M, Weisz J. Virtual Reality and Web-Based Growth Mindset Interventions for Adolescent Depression: Protocol for a Three-Arm Randomized Trial. JMIR Research Protocols 2019;8(7):e13368 View
  4. Krans J, Bosmans G, Salemink E, De Raedt R. Cognitive Bias Modification of Expectancies (CBM-E): Effects on Interpretation Bias and Autobiographical Memory, and Relations with Social and Attachment Anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research 2019;43(6):1028 View
  5. Rose V, Stewart I, Jenkins K, Tabbaa L, Ang C, Matsangidou M. Bringing the outside in: The feasibility of virtual reality with people with dementia in an inpatient psychiatric care setting. Dementia 2021;20(1):106 View
  6. Cardi V, Turton R, Brazil C, Harrison A, Rowlands K, Treasure J, Hirsch C. Training Rejection Interpretation in Eating disordeRs (TRIER): Preliminary Findings of a Feasibility Study in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa. Cognitive Therapy and Research 2019;43(6):1109 View
  7. Tabbaa L, Ang C, Siriaraya P, She W, Prigerson H. A Reflection on Virtual Reality Design for Psychological, Cognitive and Behavioral Interventions: Design Needs, Opportunities and Challenges. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction 2021;37(9):851 View
  8. Pittara M, Matsangidou M, Stylianides K, Petkov N, Pattichis C. Virtual Reality for Pain Management in Cancer: A Comprehensive Review. IEEE Access 2020;8:225475 View
  9. Matsangidou M, Otkhmezuri B, Ang C, Avraamides M, Riva G, Gaggioli A, Iosif D, Karekla M. “Now i can see me” designing a multi-user virtual reality remote psychotherapy for body weight and shape concerns. Human–Computer Interaction 2022;37(4):314 View
  10. Wu H, Cai T, Luo D, Liu Y, Zhang Z. Immersive virtual reality news: A study of user experience and media effects. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 2021;147:102576 View
  11. Wolters L, Hagen A, Beek V, Dol P, de Haan E, Salemink E. Effectiveness of an online interpretation training as a pre-treatment for cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder in youth: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders 2021;29:100636 View
  12. Hinojo-Lucena F, Aznar-Díaz I, Cáceres-Reche M, Trujillo-Torres J, Romero-Rodríguez J. Virtual Reality Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety in Students. Advancements and Results in Personalized Medicine. Journal of Personalized Medicine 2020;10(1):14 View
  13. Machulska A, Eiler T, Kleinke K, Grünewald A, Brück R, Jahn K, Niehaves B, Klucken T. Approach bias retraining through virtual reality in smokers willing to quit smoking: A randomized-controlled study. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2021;141:103858 View
  14. Baghaei N, Chitale V, Hlasnik A, Stemmet L, Liang H, Porter R. Virtual Reality for Supporting the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety: Scoping Review. JMIR Mental Health 2021;8(9):e29681 View
  15. Takac M, Collett J, Conduit R, De Foe A. Addressing virtual reality misclassification: A hardware‐based qualification matrix for virtual reality technology. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 2021;28(3):538 View
  16. Wagemaker E, Dekkers T, Bexkens A, Salemink E, Zadelaar J, Huizenga H. Susceptibility to peer influence in adolescents with mild-to-borderline intellectual disability: Investigating links with inhibition, Theory of Mind and negative interpretation bias. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability 2022;47(4):376 View
  17. Ang C, Siriaraya P, Tabbaa L, Falzarano F, Kanjo E, Prigerson H. Editorial for advances in human-centred dementia technology. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 2023;170:102964 View
  18. Machulska A, Roesmann K, Eiler T, Grünewald A, Brück R, Klucken T. Der Einsatz von Virtueller Realität in der Psychotherapeutischen Praxis: Aktueller Forschungsstand, Chancen, Risiken und Herausforderungen. Psychotherapie Forum 2021;25(3-4):169 View
  19. Salemink E, de Jong S, Notebaert L, MacLeod C, Van Bockstaele B. Gamification of cognitive bias modification for interpretations in anxiety increases training engagement and enjoyment. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 2022;76:101727 View
  20. Gardini V, Gamberini G, Müller S, Grandi S, Tomba E. The Effects of Virtual Reality in Targeting Transdiagnostic Factors for Mental Health: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Journal of Clinical Medicine 2022;11(21):6463 View
  21. Geerts J, Pieterse M, Laverman G, Waanders F, Oosterom N, Slegten J, Salemink E, Bode C. Cognitive Bias Modification Training Targeting Fatigue in Patients With Kidney Disease: Usability Study. JMIR Formative Research 2023;7:e43636 View
  22. Mao N, Li T, Li C, Ding R, Zhang Q, Cui L. Smartphone‐Based Training of Cognitive Bias Modification: Efficacy for Reducing Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies 2023;32(8):2394 View
  23. Hariyady H, Ag Ibrahim A, Teo J, Suharso W, Firjaun Barlaman M, Aulanas Bitaqwa M, Ahmad A, Md Yassin F, Salimun C, Weng N, Abdul Karim S, Syed Zainol Abidin S, Skala V. Virtual Reality and Emotional Responses: A Comprehensive Literature Review on Theories, Frameworks, and Research Gaps. ITM Web of Conferences 2024;63:01022 View

Books/Policy Documents

  1. Fernandez-Álvarez J, Díaz-García A, Colombo D, Botella C, Cipresso P, Riva G. Comprehensive Clinical Psychology. View
  2. Salemink E, Woud M, Bouwman V, Mobach L. Interpretational Processing Biases in Emotional Psychopathology. View
  3. Wiers R, Pan T, van Dessel P, Rinck M, Lindenmeyer J. . View